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E-mail Password Remember Forgot password? Become a member for free. Add to my list. You can enter multiple email addresses separated by commas Message: Forward-Looking Statements This press release contains forward-looking information within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of Name Title Robert E.
All identifiers should meet the following criteria: Gene model identifiers do not contain any biological information including accession name, chromosome location, or chromosomal order. Some annotation pipelines e. Maker-P may sequentially order gene models along a reference sequence e. Zma, Zma, Zma, Zma but order should not be assumed. Current order and orientation of gene models within BACs that make up the pseudomolecule may not represent their correct order and orientation on the chromosome.
Allow the unique diversity among maize lines to be accounted for. Nomenclature of genes based on the order in B73 would likely be in conflict among lines, and could unnecessarily imply or confound the order of genes in other lines. Therefore each assembly should be named and annotated independently of B Contact Please cite us!
We wish to have a system that is consistent, compatible with the historical background of maize genetics insofar as these two goals can be reconciled , is easily understood by plant geneticists working with other species, and forms the basis for the importation of maize data into a general plant genetics data base so that the basic knowledge concerning maize genes is available to researchers with other species and vice versa.
We believe that this goal is best implemented by the researchers in each species having their own working vocabulary, while the identification of genes that catalyze the same functions in all species should rely on entry into a relational data base of the genes' function as an E.
The situation can be less completely categorized for genes whose products are transcription factors, structural proteins, storage proteins, etc. If one accepts the premise outlined above that the common ground between species need not reside in the working vocabulary of geneticists using any species as a model system but in the manner in which their data are expressed in the data base, then the previously adopted names for maize genes can be retained.
It will not be necessary to rename the genes previously named on the basis of the mutant phenotype produced as soon as the function of the nonmutant alleles becomes known, but we should proceed to define more precisely words or terms whose meanings need clarification and to decide how we wish to deal with the new information becoming available.
The words "locus" and "gene" should not be treated as synonymous. A locus can be defined as "a chromosomal site of variable size at or within which is located a gene, a restriction site, a knob, a breakpoint, an insertion, or other distinguishable feature". This necessitates specifying whether we mean a gene locus or an RFLP locus, etc.
We can then define a plant gene as "a DNA sequence of which a segment is regularly or conditionally transcribed at some time in either or both generations of the plant. The DNA is understood to include not only the exons and introns of the structural gene but the cis 5' and 3' regions in which a sequence change can affect gene expression". This treats the gene as a functionally defined entity that is not circumscribed by the transcribed region or other fixed limits.
That will continue to be the practice except with isozyme markers, for which the designation will be the enzyme in question, or the instances in which the biochemical lesion responsible for the mutant phenotype is identified before the locus is reported. The loci of these genes have then been placed on chromosome maps in relation to other mapped loci.
However, we now have the possibility of recognizing genes in which no mutation has been detected through the construction of cDNA libraries. Mapping a locus in this fashion is encouraged as a means of obtaining maximum coverage of the genome.
As long as the locus retains an anonymous status unknown function or no mutant phenotype , the symbol for the locus should be assigned according to the convention used for RFLP loci as umc, see Section 8. Further information about the probe and its derivation is best provided in tabular or data base form rather than in the symbol itself.
Particular caution should be taken in identifying genes and their function from several RFLPs hybridizing to a gene-specific probe from another organism. Until a sequence has been shown to encode the function in question, the gene designation should be that of an RFLP locus see Section 8.
The decision was made to not utilize the parenthetic 'gfu' designation for "gene, function unknown". The confusion arises from the practice in RFLP naming to include parenthetic acronyms where sites are detected by probes with an assigned or putative identity with a particular gene product.
The names and symbols that have been used for maize genes should be retained. The name and symbol of a gene locus should be represented with lower-case, italic characters defective kernel12, dek Note that no hyphen separates the gene name from a numerical suffix, which is a change from previous usage.
We use a hyphen in the case of mutant alleles to separate the allele designation from a suffix specifying the particular allele see Section 5. We advocate strongly that all genes identified in the future be given a three letter symbol. Newly detected maize genes that have been previously identified in other plant species should be named where appropriate see the last paragraph in Section 2 with reference to the list of generic names compiled by the Commission on Plant Gene Nomenclature.
When designating homozygous genotypes with two or more unlinked genes, the genes are separated by semicolons, e. If linked, the genes are separated by spaces, e. Heterozygous genotypes should be written with a slash separating the sets of linked genes, e. Where we have more than one nonallelic mutant with the same gene name, the earlier recommendation was that the first one to receive that name should not have a numerical suffix but the second has 2 as a suffix.
Thus we have shrunken sh , shrunken2 sh2 , and shrunken4 sh4 mutants. Geneticists outside the maize community are apt to misinterpret this convention. We recommend that we be consistent and write shrunken1 or sh1 and advocate that even if a new locus is identified and given a unique name, it be designated as 1.
This has the definite advantage in maintaining data bases and indices that no retrospective correction would be necessary if a second gene locus receives the same designation. Where a mutant allele is recessive, it should be designated by an italicized symbol lower case as dek12 , which is the same as the symbol of the locus.
Since it is unlikely that any two mutant or nonmutant alleles in a highly polymorphic species such as maize have identical sequences, maize geneticists are encouraged to specify the particular allele with which they are working see in this Section, Alleles of Independent Mutational Origin and Designation of Nonmutant Alleles. The symbol for dominant, nonmutant i. The symbol of the gene product should not be italicized and should be written with all letters capitalized e.
The name of the gene product alcohol dehydrogenase should neither be capitalized nor italicized. When the mutant alleles of a gene are dominant, the first letter of the mutant symbol is capitalized. The nonmutant symbol has all the letters lower case. For example, the corn grass1 cg1 gene locus has several dominant mutant Cg1 alleles as well as nonmutant cg1 alleles.
The reference mutant allele is designated as Cg1-R or Codominant alleles such as isozymes where the variants are functional and distinguished from each other by electrophoretic mobility, should be designated by symbols with the first letter capitalized and identified by allelic specifications as Pgm or Pgm The unambiguous designation of mutant alleles that have arisen as independent mutational events is increasingly important.
It is generally understood that a gene symbol followed by a hyphen plus a letter or number s specifies a particular recessive allele at that gene locus. We have referred to the mutation by which the gene was identified as the reference allele; e.
It is equally appropriate to refer to that allele as bz The mutations in any gene that were identified subsequently have been categorized in various idiosyncratic ways. Alleles that have arisen by independent mutational events have been designated by letters, numbers, a letter plus numbers, the name of the inbred in which the mutation occurred, and sometimes all of these applied to a group of alleles at a gene locus.
While all of these designations served the purpose of indicating that these alleles had independent mutational origins, there is a clear advantage to greater standardization. As in the Nomenclature Standard, it is recommended that new alleles be identified by a laboratory number that might indicate the year of isolation as sh This has the definite advantage that two laboratories are unlikely to designate two new mutations of the same gene by the same number.
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